MUSAHARS- What keeps Musahars entangled in Poverty?

Even nowadays in the darker spots there are several castes amid the Dalits of Uttar pradesh and Bihar who dwell in abject poverty and social isolation. Financial vulnerability, malnutrition, sick well being, condition illiteracy, difficult labour and so forth. are this kind of words and phrases which are crowed in the dictionary of these people today. Musahars, in accordance to some anthropological accounts, attract their antecedents from the Kol tribe of Chhotanagpur (in Jharkhand), owning migrated to paddy cultivable spots of what is now Bihar, likely from the 12th century, and have been the one premier source of agricultural labour in the location considering that.

As goes the history, nowadays, the Musahar are a scheduled caste group and mostly landless agricultural labourers. In accordance to the 1981 Census of Authorities of India, their state-smart population are- in Bihar 13.91 lakhs, in Uttar Pradesh 1.26 lakhs.

What allows this kind of an abject poverty, of the form suffered by Musahars, to endure in India? Why can’t the poorest abstain themselves from  the poverty lure, even throughout generations, even with policies and programmes, and financial and political modifications and prospects all all around?


The prism of long-term poverty is applied to realize the drivers and maintainers of poverty, this kind of as lousy asset base and weak capabilities, and structural variables like unequal land distribution and caste hierarchies, which maintain again marginalized communities from making use of newer prospects. In Bihar, Musahars can be traced in several districts Madhubani, Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Champaran, Hazaribagh, Santal Pargana, Bhagalpur, Munger, Purnea and Gaya and so forth. Known by their quite a few names typically rat eaters, pig rearers and so forth


Even nowadays, poverty and inequality are connected in the social structure, with upper castes owning the electricity more than much of the belongings and prospects. Just about every Musahar (in fact, Dalit) spouse and children is linked to a grihasta spouse and children, in some kind of a symbiotic (but unequal) marriage among the two, which is wholly disadvantageous for the Musahar. Normally, the Musahar spouse and children (kamia or mazdoor), life on land belonging to the landlord. In return the owner has 1st right more than the kamia’s labour, for operate on fields or minding cattle or house chores, at a substantially decreased daily wage charge of `25–40 per working day, paid out mainly in form. Mainly, owners  are the moneylenders that entrap the hapless kamia Musahar.

There are other this kind of forms of dependence as well, this kind of as Musahars owning to use popular lands in villages (ghairmazrua land)—that are mainly occupied illegally by upper caste families—or use land belonging to upper caste farmers, for explanations as diversified as grazing livestock or assembly the contact of character, even to use ponds and water bodies for bathing and washing, and for livestock.



For a optimistic improve, a powerful establishment of the lousy enabling helpful social mobilization, which underlies all effective conditions of Musahars to renovate their affliction would involve unparalleled social mobilization. This would undoubtedly involve really serious and sustained expenditure in education and learning policies, programmes to make the awareness, aspiration and ability to empower the Musahars to develop into brokers of improve.

In today’s period, the tips of enhancement and developmental procedures have been through crucial modifications. Both equally official and non-official companies go hand in hand in purchase to lengthen and meet the need of an all round enhancement of a modern society viz-a-viz the country. The poverty stricken marginal communities and their vulnerability have been the legacy of Indian Democracy from time immemorial. Nevertheless its substantial time that we as a modern society search for to improve the state.



Apoorva Priyadarshini, Student Editor- Authorized Motivation